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ENL 264: Communicating in the Sciences

What is IMRAD?

A typical scientific article has the following sections:


  • reviews the topic being studied
  • summarizes research that has previously been done (a literature review)
  • states the hypothesis or what the authors are testing in the study in this paper


  • describes how the study or experiment was set up
  • describes how data was collected, what data was collected, and how the data was analyzed


  • presents the analyzed data
  • usually contains tables, graphs, charts and other displays illustrating the data


  • highlights and explains the results
  • comments on whether or not the data support the original hypothesis
  • sometimes will suggest possibilities for future study