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Visual & Media Literacy Guide

Image and Media Citations

Why image and media citations are important.

Today, it is easy to grab an image from Google.  However, we must acknowledgment of our fellow artists and designers for their work. Professional practice requires us to research the origins of the image and media resource, verify the information associated with the resource for accuracy and determine copyright declaration. All visual and media resources should be cited properly.

Best Practice Image/Media Reproduction:

All reproductions should be clear, focus, and an accurate representation of the original visual content. Publication quality for production is 300 dpi.

Chicago Style Guidelines

Image & Multimedia Resources

All images and multimedia should be cited.

Citation Types:
  • Captions: Appear below the image within the paper.
  • Footnotes/Endnotes:  Notes are number sequentially and placed at the bottom of the page in which the image appears or a list at the end of the paper.
  • Bibliography: Is a list of all the sources used in a paper or publications. 

Chicago Style Captions

Image & Media Captions
Layout Rules:
  • Captions begin with term figure, fig. illustration or ill.
  • Sequential numbers
  • Punctuation is the same as footnotes/endnotes
  • Do not indent
Element Rules:
  • Figure, fig. , illustration or ill.
  • Sequential number
  • Creator first name followed by last name
  • Title of image (in italics)
  • Creation date the image/artwork
  • Medium
  • Dimensions
  • Name of custodian of the image/artworks
  • Location of image/artwork
  • (Credit line for the image) in parentheses

Fig. 1. John Singer Sargent, 1885, Claude Monet Painting by the Edge of the Woods, Oil on canvas, 54cm x 64.8cm, Tate Britain, London, (Courtesy of Tate Britain Museum).

Chicago Style Guidelines for Bibliography & Notes

Bibliography

Layout Rules:

  • Alphabetical order by artist last name,
  • First line is flush left and the subsequent lines indent.
  • Main elements are separated by periods.

Component Rules:

  • Creator(s) last name, first name.
  • Title image/artwork (in italics).
  • Date of image/artwork.
  • Medium.
  • Dimensions of work.
  • Name of custodian of image/artwork and its location city and state (if possible include the collection name or unique identification number).

Adams, Ansel. Thundercloud, Ellery Lake, Sierra Nevada California. 1934. Silver gelatin print. 8 x 10 in. Ansel Adams Trust. Yosemite, CA.

Endnote/Footnote

Layout Rules:

  • Assign each image with a sequential number in the order it appears.
  • Do not indent
  • Elements are separated by commas.

Component Rules: (Adhere to the same criteria as bibliography except for the rule(s) listed below.)

  • Creator(s) first name, last name,

1. Ansel Adams, Thundercloud, Ellery Lake, Sierra Nevada, California, 1934, Silver gelatin print, 8 x 10 in., Ansel Adams Trust, Yosemite, CA.

Bibliography

Layout Rules:

  • Alphabetical order by artist last name,
  • First line is flush left and the subsequent lines indent.
  • Main elements are separated by periods.

Element Rules:

  • Creator's Last name, First Name.
  • Title (in italic).
  • Work Date.
  • Medium.
  • Website or "in" Name of Database.
  • Web accessed date (month/day/year).
  • URL/DOI.

Website Example:

Lange, Dorothea. Migrant Mother.1936. Nitrate negative. 1.9 x 1.5 inches. Wikimedia Commons. accessed October 31, 2019. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lange-MigrantMother02.jpg

Database Example:

Lange, Dorothea. Migrant Mother. 1936. Nitrate negative. 1.9 x 1.5 inches. in LUNA. accessed October 31, 2019.https://luna.umassd.edu/luna/servlet/s/b2m8zd


Endnotes/Footnotes

Layout Rules:

  • Assign each image a sequential number in the order it appears in the paper.
  • Do not indent
  • Elements are separated by commas.

Element Rules: (Adhere to the same criteria as above except for the rule(s) listed below.)

  • Creator(s) first name, last name.

1. Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, 1936, Nitrate negative, Wikimedia Commons, accessed October 31, 2019, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lange-MigrantMother02.jpg.

Bibliography

Layout Rules:

  • Alphabetical order by artist last name.
  • First line is flush left and the subsequent lines tab indent.
  • Main elements are separated by periods.

Element Rules:

  • Title italics.
  • directed by..... first name and last name or Creator.
  • Studio or distributor/publisher.
  • Year released/copyrighted.
  • Format.

The Hunger Games. Directed by Gary Ross. Lionsgate Films, 2012. BlueRay

Endnote/Footnote

General Layout Rules:

  • Assign each image with a sequential number in the order it appears.
  • Do not indent
  • Elements are separated by commas.

Content Format Rules(Adhere to the same content format rules as bibliography)

1. The Hunger Games, Gary Ross, Lionsgate Films, 2012, BlueRay


Television Broadcast

Layout Rules: same as above

Element Rules:

  • Title of the Show (italics)
  • Title of Episode
  • Broadcast Company
  • Broadcast Date mm/dd/yyyy
  • written by...
  • directed by....
  • URL

Games of Thrones. Golden Crown Season 1 Episode 8. HBO Company. May 22, 2011. written by Jane Espenson, David Benioff and D.B. Weiss. directed by Daniel Minahan. https://www.hbo.com/game-of-thrones/season-01

Endnotes/Footnotes

Layout Rules: same as above

Content Format Rules: same as above

1. Games of Thrones, "Golden Crown Season 1 Episode 8", HBO Company, May 22, 2011, written by Jane Espenson, David Benioff and D.B. Weiss, directed by Daniel Minahan, https://www.hbo.com/game-of-thrones/season-01

Bibliography

Layout Rules:

  • Alphabetical order by artist last name,
  • First line is flush left and the subsequent lines indented 1/2 inch.
  • Main elements are separated by periods.

Element Rules:

  • Title italics.
  • Name Online Video Streaming Producer (YouTube, Vimeo, Kanopy, etc).
  • Format.
  • posted by...organization and individual
  • Year posted (month, day, year)
  • URL/DOI

SOFA Chicago UMASS Dartmouth Weaving with Light installation. YouTube. video. posted by College of Visual and Performing Arts. Feb 10, 2016.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUVlodyc4OI

Endnote/Footnote

Layout Rules:

  • Assign each image with a sequential number in the order it appears.
  • Do not indent
  • Elements are separated by commas.

Element Rules: (Adhere to the same content format rules as bibliography.)

1. SOFA Chicago UMASS Dartmouth Weaving with Light installation, YouTube, video, posted by College of Visual and Performing Arts, Feb 10, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUVlodyc4O

Presentation Caption  (use commas)

Follow caption instructions for images inside of presentation or create an endnote list at the end. 

Element Rules:

  • Figure, fig. , illustration or ill.
  • Sequential number
  • Creator first name followed by last name
  • Title of image (in italics)
  • Creation date the image/artwork
  • Medium
  • Dimensions
  • Name of custodian of the image/artworks
  • City or State artwork resides
  • (Credit line for the image) in parentheses

Fig 1. Ansel Adams, Thundercloud, Ellery Lake, Sierra, Nevada, California, 1934, Silver gelatin print, 8 x 10 in., Ansel Adams Trust, Yosemite, CA.  (Courtesy of Ansel Adams Trust).

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APA Citation Guidelines

Images and Multimedia Resources

All visual aids including a work of art, photograph, print, drawing, architectural plan, chart, or map are considered a “figure”.  A “figure” is a visual content that pertains directly to the text within the book, paper, or article.

Citation Types:
  • Figure Format: Non-art related visual aids or original drawings or photographs by author.
  • Caption Format: Reproduction of an original (artworks, photographs, multimedia, etc.)
  • Reference List:  A bibliographic reference list of all visual content included in text.

APA Figures & Captions (in-text)

 

Captions are used when an image is a reproduction of an original. 

Element Rules:

  • Figure Number (Capitalize “F” and Italics).
  • Title of visual resource or if the title is not available a short description.
  • by... Artist/Creator's First name and last name.
  • Creation Date (yyyy)
  • Name of Copyright Holder (Artist, Create, Museum, Archive, Library Publisher, Website, Database, etc.).
  • Copyright Declaration: reprint, adapted, with permission, creative common license abbreviation (CC) or public domain.

Figure 1. View of Vetheuil. by Claude Monet, 1880. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Public Domain.

Museum Resource Online

Figure 1. View of Vetheuil. by Claude Monet, 1880. From New York, NY. Metropolitan Museum of Art.  Retrieve from (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Claude_Monet_-_Vue_de_V%C3%A9theuil.jpg). Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain

Photographic Resource (Online)

Figure 2. “Arrested refugees-immigrants in Fylakio detention center,” Evros, Greece,” by Ggia 2010. [Photographer] Greek. Wikimedia, (CC).

Layout Rules:

The caption appears below the image.

Element Rules:

  • Figure Number (Capitalize “F” and Italics).
  • Title of visual resource or if the title is not available a short description.
  • by... Artist/Creator's First name and last name.
  • Creation Date (yyyy)
  • From...Name of Copyright Holder (Artist, Create, Museum, Archive, Library Publisher, Website, Database, etc.)
  • Copyright Declaration: reprint, adapted, with permission, creative common license abbreviation (CC) or public domain.
  • Retreive from...URL/DOI if available

 

Figures rules pertain to non-art related visual aids including architectural drawings, charts, maps, etc or original drawings or photographs that are create primarily by the author.

Layout Rules:

  • The image reproduction should be high quality, clear, focus, and an accurate representation of the visual content.
  • Figure number is expressed first and in bold font.
  • All titles are double space below figure number.

Content Format Rules:

  • Figure Number: Each figure must have a sequential number (Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, etc.) and in bold with no punctuation.
  • Figure Title: The official title identifying the visual aid or a short description when title is not available (initial capitalize each word except for articles and ends with a comma. (in italics)
  • Figure Notes (Include only if absolutely necessary).: if title does not convey the image, please add a brief explanation note.
  • Date

 

Figure 1

Poverty Rate in the United States, excludes Puerto Rico. 2017

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Reference List Guidelines

All figures must be list in the "Reference List" and alphabetical by last name of artist/photograph/creator.


Layout Rules:

  • Page Header "Reference List"
  • Double space between citations
  • First line flush left, all succeeding page indent 5 spaces
  • Organize list alphabetical by creator/artist last name.
  • Use periods between elements except for location.
  • URL break: When the Reference entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, break it before a slash or dash or at another logical division point.

Element Rules:

  • Artist Last Name, First Initial.
  • (Year work/image was created, fabricated, published, etc. Be sure to use parentheses).
  • Title of work/image or a description if title is not available. (in italics and capitalize words except for articles or prepositions).
  • [Physical Description of work/type, or medium].
  • City, State that the original resides followed by a semicolon:
  • Owner/Copyright Holder (Artist, Museum, Archive, Library) and/or Publisher.
  • retrieved from URL/DOI.

Eakins, Thomas. (1871).The Champion Single Sculls. [Oil on canvas] New York, NY. Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

O’Jones, P.  (2010, August 29). J. Dog. [digital image]. New York, NY: Courtesy of photographer Pamela O'Jones.

Stanton, Andrew. (2012) The Clues to a Great Story. [online video]. TedTalks. retrieved by https://www.ted.com/talks/andrew_stanton_the_clues_to_a_great_story?referrer=playlist-the_power_of_film.

Element Rules for Images taken from Books & Articles:

  • For books, start with "From" followed by an italicized title, page number in parentheses, "by" the author, followed by date and publication information. copyright declaration.
  • For electronic resources, start with "Retrieved" and include retrieval date (month day, year) and "from: " followed by the URL/DOI.                  

Element Rules:

  • Artist Last Name, First Initial.
  • (Year work/image was created, fabricated, published, etc. Be sure to use parentheses).
  • Title of work/image or a description if title is not available. (in italics and capitalize words except for articles or prepositions).
  • [Physical Description of work/type, or medium].
  • City, State that the original resides followed by a semicolon:
  • Owner/Copyright Holder (Artist, Museum, Archive, Library) and/or Publisher

Artworks Example:

Eakins, Thomas. (1871).The Champion Single Sculls. [Oil on canvas] New York, NY. Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Photograph Example:

O’Jones, P.  (2010, August 29). J. Dog. [digital image]. New York, NY: Courtesy of photographer Pamela O'Jones.

Element Rules:

  • Artist Last Name, First Initial.
  • (Year work/image was created, fabricated, published, etc. Be sure to use parentheses).
  • Title of work/image or a description if title is not available. (in italics and capitalize words except for articles or prepositions).
  • [Physical Description of work/type, or medium].
  • City, State that the original resides followed by a semicolon:
  • Owner/Copyright Holder (Artist, Museum, Archive, Library) and/or Publisher.
  • retrieved from URL/DOI.

Retrieved from Website:

Artist. (Year). Title. [medium] Institution, Museum, or Collection, Location. Owner of the original. Website. retrieved from URL.

Example:

Eakins, T. (1891) William Rudolf O'Donovan, [watercolor]. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian institution.  retrieved from Flickr Commons: http://www.flickr.com/photos/smithsonian/2547841439/.

Image Reproduction from Database:

Artist. (Year). Title. Institution, Museum, or Collection, Location. Available from Database Name.

Example:

Warhol, A. (1966). Untitled, [serigraph on paper].  Rochester, NY: George Eastman House. Available from LUNA.retreieved from http://luna.umassd.edu

Film

Element Rules:

  • For Film use - Producer's Last Name, First Initial. (Producer). & Director's Last Name, First Initial. (Director).
  • For Television use - Writer Last Name, First Initial. (Writer) &  Director's Last Name, First Initial. (Director).
  • (Year released) or (Broadcast or Copyright Year).
  • Title of film: Subtitle or Title of Television broadcast and/or Television series (italics)
  • [format = Documentary] surround with square brackets. 
  • Country it was produced/origin followed by colon:
  • Name of Studio, Production, or Distribution Company
  • In P. Producer (Producer), Series title. City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.

Example

Marshall, F, Lucas, G., Kazanjian, H. G. and Watts, R. & Spielberg, S. (1981) Raiders of the Lost Ark. [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

Television Broadcast or Series Episode

Element Rules:

  • Writer Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial (Writer designation) &  Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial (Director designation).
  • (Broadcast or Copyright Year, Month, Day).
  • Episode Title and/or series (italics)
  • [format = Television Episode or Television Series] surround with square brackets. 
  • Country it was produced/origin followed by colon:
  • Name of Studio, Production, or Distribution Company
  • In... First Initial Last Name (Series Producer)
  • Series title.
  • City, state of origin followed by colon:
  • Network or Studio.

Television series episode

Rule, C. (Director). (1993, April 6). Frederick Douglas. [Television episode] In B. Jerome (Producer), Civil War Journal. Arts and Entertainment Network.

Television broadcast series

  • Same as above except Cite the producer at the beginning of the citation and not the writer.

Jones, I. M. (Producer). (1990 November 1). The Evening News. [Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Canadian Broadcasting Service.

Online Film/Video

Element Rules:

  • Producer Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. & Director Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial.
  • (Year Video).
  • Title of film: Subtitle
  • [format = video file]. 
  • Studio, Production or Distribution Company. 
  • in Name of Database
  • Retrieved from URL/DOI

Example

Stanton, Andrew. (2012) The Clues to a Great Story. [online video]. TedTalks. retrieved by https://www.ted.com/talks/andrew_stanton_the_clues_to_a_great_story?referrer=playlist-the_power_of_film.

Layout Rules:

  • Page Header "Reference List"
  • Double space between citations
  • First line flush left, all succeeding page indent 5 spaces
  • Organize list alphabetical by creator/artist last name
  • Use periods between elements except for location.
  • URL break: When the Reference entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, break it before a slash or dash or at another logical division point.

Element Rules:

  • Artist Last Name, First Initial.
  • (Year work/image was created, fabricated, published, etc. Be sure to use parentheses).
  • Title of work/image or a description if title is not available. (in italics and capitalize words except for articles or prepositions).
  • [Physical Description of work/type, or medium].
  • Location of Original Work city, state followed by a semicolon):
  • Owner/Copyright Holder (Artist, Museum, Archive, Library) and/or Publisher.
  • retrieved from URL/DOI.

Reference List

Bellow, George. (1909). Stag at Sharkey's. [Oil on canvas]. Cleveland, Ohio. Cleveland Museum of Art.

 

Eakins, T. (1891) William Rudolf O'Donovan, [watercolor]. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian institution.  retrieved from Flickr Commons: http://www.flickr.com/photos/smithsonian/2547841439/.

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